A to Z of American Women Writers (A to Z of Women)

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She also lobbied the U. Balch was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in at age Only two other women had previously received that prize: Jane Addams in for her work in the settlement housing movement, and Austrian writer Baroness Bertha von Suttner in for her poetry.

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She spent her last four years in a Cambridge nursing home. Emily Greene Balch died just one day after her 94th birthday on January 9, She had devoted her life to the pursuit of peace. Balch, Emily Greene. The Miracle of Living. New York: Island Press, Occupied Haiti. Reprint, New York: Garland, Our Slavic Fellow-Citizens. Reprint, New York: Arno, Randall, John. Washington, D. Randall, Mercedes.

Improper Bostonian: Emily Greene Balch.

New York: Twayne, Environmental Judi Bari, the leader of the Earth First! Her ItalianAmerican father was a diamond setter; her Jewish mother, a teacher. Bari was the second of three daughters and grew up in a middle-class suburb in Maryland.


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She entered the University of Maryland in and protested against the Vietnam War while she was a student there. After leaving school she worked for the U.

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Postal Service in Washington, D. She moved to Sonoma County, California, with her husband in While there, she was involved in protests for peace in Central America and remained active in labor issues, including the organization of sawmill workers into an International Workers of the World local. While working as a carpenter, she learned that the wood she used was coming from old-growth redwood trees.

Some of those redwood trees were at least 1, years old and 97 percent of oldgrowth redwoods had already been cut. The environmentalist group Earth First! Bari began to get involved by organizing blockades of logging trucks for Earth First! She guided Earth First! She began to build alliances between timber workers and environmentalists. I liked the direct action, the spirit, the music; but I was appalled at the anti-working-class attitude that says loggers are the enemy—the lack of distinctions between the loggers and the corporations and the owners.

In , her car was wrecked when a logging truck, which had been brought to a standstill the previous day by an Earth First! In the spring of Bari organized Redwood Summer, a campaign that sought national attention for the Earth First! The campaign brought 3, college students from around the country to northern California in an effort that was modeled on the Mississippi Freedom Summer campaigns of the s civil rights movement.

She chronicled her experiences as an activist in her book, Timber Wars, published by Common Courage Press. Judi Bari died on March 22, , of breast cancer that had spread to her liver. She refused hospitalization, choosing instead to die at home in her mountain cabin near Willits, California, with her daughters, companion, family, and friends nearby. Timber Wars.

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Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, Dowie, Mark. Kohl, Judith. Redwood Summer Justice Project. Updated on May 30, Talbot, Stephen. What Next? Born on December 25, , in Oxford, Massachusetts, she was the last child in a family of five. Her mother, Sarah Stone, believed slavery was wrong and that women should have the same rights as men. Her father, Captain Stephen Barton, was a prosperous farmer, miller, and state legislator who had served in the American Revolution. Teaching was one of the few jobs open to women at that time, so in Barton became a teacher in a one-room school in her hometown.

She protested the lower pay women were routinely offered. She left teaching for a year to attend the Liberal Institute of Clinton, New York, in , a school open to both men and women. Later, she moved to Bordentown, New Jersey, where she taught in a private school. Despite opposition, Barton worked in to establish the first free school in New Jersey. When a male principal was appointed to the position that she believed should have been hers, she resigned and suffered severe depression afterward.

In , Barton became one of the first female civil servants in the federal government when she went to work for the Patent Office in Washington, D. A year later, Secretary of the Interior Robert McClelland raised opposition to women working in government. The administration of President James Buchanan eliminated her position at the Patent Office after the election, and suffered another period of depression.

A to Z of American Women Leaders and Activists (A to Z of Women)

During the Civil War Barton raised money for medical supplies and later established a federal office for missing soldiers. Her talent lay in gathering and distributing supplies to the Union army. Operating outside of official bureaucracy, she privately advertised in newspapers for donations of food and clothing, then delivered those items to battlefronts.

Quitting her job at the Patent Office, Barton turned her home into a warehouse and learned to garner publicity from the media in order to increase donations of much-needed supplies. When Barton first requested permission from an official at the War Department to go to the battlefields to help the wounded, she was told that single women should not even suggest such a thing. She persisted and began her work. Barton helped both Confederate and Union soldiers. She found soldiers lying in blood and filth, many suffering sunstroke and lack of water.

Hospital floors were slimy with blood and body waste. Sanitary Commission nurses did exist, but Barton did not work with them because she did not want to be concerned with regulations regarding uniforms, supplies, and procedures. She wanted to go to the battlefield rather than wait for days until soldiers were finally brought to hospitals and the infections that would claim their lives had already set in. She became the unofficial head of the 10th corps hospital, still without government pay. At the close of the war in she requested permission from President Lincoln to identify missing soldiers.


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Again she spent her personal funds and lectured in order to fund the project. Secretary of War Edwin Stanton asked her to travel to the Andersonville prisoner-of-war camp in Georgia in order to identify unmarked graves and notify family members. That summer she identified 13, of the dead. By , she had identified 22, missing men. That fall, she hoped the War Department would give her funds to continue her work, but they did not, and when her work came to an end, she suffered another bout of depression.

She went abroad, hoping to alleviate the symptoms. While in Geneva, Switzerland, in , she had the opportunity to work for the Red Cross, which had been established in when 11 countries signed the Geneva Treaty. The treaty was intended to establish rules of treatment for wounded soldiers and prisoners of war. Many Americans were isolationists who had no interest in belonging to international organizations.

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The United States did not become a member of the Red Cross until On her return to America in , Barton spent a year in Dansville, New York, in a sanitarium well known for treating nervous disorders. In , she wrote to the Red Cross in Geneva, asking permission to promote their organization in the United States. Appointed as their representa- tive, she worked to convince Congress to accept the Treaty of Geneva and recognize the Red Cross. A group of 22 supporters established the first branch of the American Association of the Red Cross on May 21, , with Barton elected as president.

Finally, in March , Congress ratified the Treaty of Geneva.


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Barton received a charter in and at age 79, began another new career. Barton served as president of the American Red Cross until , when she was 82 years old. Once again she suffered a period of depression. She then organized and served as president of the National First Aid Association, which developed the original first-aid kits.

The Red Cross later incorporated first-aid training into its work. Barton wrote her autobiography, Story of My Childhood, in She is buried in her hometown of North Oxford, Massachusetts. Thirty-five volumes of her diaries are housed in the Library of Congress.

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The American Red Cross, which Barton founded, continues to serve people in need of assistance. Further Reading Burnett, William. Clara Barton at Andersonville. Conshohocken, Pa. Burton, David Henry. Clara Barton: In the Service of Humanity. Westport, Conn. Marko, Eve.

Female Authors Who Made History - Biography

Clara Barton and the American Red Cross. New York: Baronet Books, Oates, Stephen. New York: Free Press, The confrontation garnered national and international media coverage and secured her a place in civil rights history. Daisy Lee Gatson was born in Hutting, a small sawmill town in southeast Arkansas, on November 11, Her father, Orlee Gatson, worked in the lumber mill.

When Daisy was an infant, her mother was murdered while resisting the sexual assault of three local white men. Her father left immediately after the incident, and friends of the family reared Daisy. It became the largest black-interest paper in the state and during its 18year history was a leading voice in the civil rights movement. The paper criticized police brutality, segregation, and racism in the criminal justice system.