The Worldwide Crisis in Fisheries: Economic Models and Human Behavior
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We discuss means by which such limits could be identified on a fisherybyfishery basis. JEL Q User Name Password Sign In. Clark , Gordon R. Munro , and U. Rashid Sumaila. Abstract A debate is emerging over the extent to which privatization of fishery resources is socially desirable. References Arnason Ragnar.
Google Scholar. Clark Colin W. Liu PanTai , — New York : Plenum Press.
New York : Wiley Interscience. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. CrossRef Google Scholar. Cooke J. Costello Christopher , Gaines Steven D. Copes Parzival. Copes Parzival , Charles Anthony. Dulvy Nicholas K.
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Seller Inventory IQ Shipped from US within 10 to 14 business days. Ships with Tracking Number! Buy with confidence, excellent customer service!. Seller Inventory n. Colin W. Publisher: Cambridge University Press , This specific ISBN edition is currently not available. View all copies of this ISBN edition:. Synopsis About this title The world's marine fisheries are in trouble, as a direct result of overfishing and the overcapacity of fishing fleets.
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Customers who bought this item also bought. A second group of interest comprises the smaller developing countries with primarily domestic or geographically local fisheries. They tend to be countries that fish at home and have low levels of harmful subsidies but also have low value catches, low GDP and high levels of unreported catch.
These characteristics, in some cases, make them vulnerable to having forced labour in their own national fishing industries and also to being a source for fishers who become victims of modern slavery aboard foreign-flagged vessels that fish in their waters. The third group identified through this analysis comprises countries considered to be at low risk of modern slavery in their national fisheries.
Countries in this group include Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and the US and are characterised by low levels of unreported catch, high value catches, and high per capita GDP. While country of origin is an indicator of risk, in reality seafood sold to consumers is typically a mix of domestic and imported product and it can be difficult to distinguish between the two.
Analysis of seafood imports to Europe and the US suggests that when imported and domestically caught fish are combined in local markets, the risk of purchasing seafood contaminated with modern slavery increases approximately 8. While the initial analysis was undertaken on the top 20 fishing countries, it is reasonable to assume that the results can be applied to all fishing countries.
While not a confirmation of actual incidence of modern slavery in fishing, given the hidden and out of sight nature of this crime, modelling can provide important insights into likely pockets of risk that may have been previously unknown. These ratings were transformed into a ranking of low, medium, or high vulnerability to modern slavery in the fishing industry, according to both National Fisheries Policy and Wealth and Institutional Capacity.
Almost all countries either catch or consume fish, and fishing plays a pivotal role in the livelihoods of millions of people around the world. It is fundamental to the long-term sustainability of this industry to address issues of social justice and labour. Ensuring safe labour conditions involves not just the country to which a vessel is registered, but also the country in whose waters fishing occurs or where fishing occurs on the high seas, the regional fisheries management organisations , the home country of the fishers, and the countries in which fish are processed and consumed.
Governments and businesses need to focus on the following combination of strategies:. Minimum international standards for working conditions should be mandatory and enforced so that migrant workers can be sure of benefiting from employment in fishing.
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Presently, only 10 countries have ratified the convention. Government licensing of fishing rights or chartering of foreign-flagged vessels should consider known labour issues when granting access to national waters and incorporate audits of crew conditions into their general oversight and monitoring to ensure compliance with local laws and standards. Registration of crew needs to be made mandatory for all industrial fishing vessels both in the countries fished and the country in which the vessel is registered, and verification of crew should be a standard component of the licensing of fishing vessels to operate.
This needs to be backed up and monitored through inspection regimes — an approach that can be implemented both by governments but also by the businesses involved in the supply chain. Forced labour, slavery, and debt bondage in the fishing industry clearly fall within the recognised definition of serious crime, undertaken by organised criminal groups.
Recognising modern slavery in the fisheries industry as a serious crime places responsibility for enforcement with national criminal investigative and law enforcement institutions, rather than with fishing management bodies that are typically poorly equipped to deal with such criminal activities. There is an urgent need to ensure that consideration of modern slavery is brought to bear on other initiatives targeting illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing IUU from an environmental or markets perspective.
Governments and seafood traders can both play a role in improving seafood supply chain transparency, ensuring that seafood is legally caught, humanely produced, and honestly labelled. Legislative reforms should be introduced to improve vessel tracking, for example through mandatory adoption of ship tracking numbers and compulsory uptake of remote vessel monitoring technologies, which can assist in the identification of illegal activities such as the transshipment of catch or crew at sea.